International Journal of Language and Translation Research (IJLTR)

West German University Press: PEER Reviewed Journal IJLTR

International Journal of Language and Translation Research (IJLTR) [English] ISSN 2750-0594, E-ISSN 2750-0608, since 2021

Editorial Board: Jorge Arús Hita, Azizeh Chalak, Lynn M. Burlbaw, Ching-Hsuan Wu, Hamid Marashi, Beatrice Dupuy, Omid Tabatabaei, Peter White, Mansour Tavakoli, Natalia Mikheeva, Hadi Salehi, Gabriella Klein, Ahmad Mohseni, Neil Murray
1. Obligations of the editor:
1.1. Neutrality. The intellectual content of submitted manuscripts is evaluated is evaluated regardless of race, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, ethnicity, political philosophy of the authors.
1.2. Confidentiality. All manuscripts should be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to anyone without the permission of the editor. Managers and editorial staff should not disclose information about the manuscript submitted to anyone except the author, reviewers and potential reviewers.
1.3. Disclosure of information and conflicts of interest. Unpublished data contained in the submitted manuscript must not be used by editors or reviewers in their own research without the explicit consent of the author.
1.4. Decision on publication. The editor of the journal decides on the publication of submitted articles. The editor is guided by the Editorial Committee’s policy, taking into account the legal obligations regarding defamation, copyrights and plagiarism. The editor can share the decision with other members of the Editorial Board or with reviewers. In the event of an appeal of the decision of the Reading Committee, the editor may solicit two new reviewers.
2. Obligations of reviewers.
2.1. Editorial decisions. Reviewers assist the editorial staff in making decisions and may also assist the author to improve the quality of the manuscript.
2.2. Delays and deadlines. When a guest reviewer does not feel competent enough to evaluate the research presented in the manuscript, or if he finds himself unable to provide his report in time, he must inform the editor without delay in order to give him time to contact other reviewers.
2.3. Standards of objectivity, civility and respect. The reports must be objective. Personal remarks and criticisms directed at the author or hurtful remarks directed at the text content are not eligible. The opinion of the reviewer must be clear, well-argued and respectful of the author.
2.4. Indication of sources. The reviewer must identify appropriate publications not cited by the author. Any such indication must be accompanied by an appropriate comment. The reviewer should draw the editor’s attention to any similarity, any overlap between the manuscript and previously published data.
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3. Obligations of the authors.
3.1. Information validity. The information contained in the manuscripts submitted for publication must present the results of the authors’ research as well as an objective discussion of these results and their importance. The underlying data must be presented correctly. Fraudulent and consciously inaccurate information is considered unethical and unacceptable. The identification of research done by others must always be given. Authors should cite the publications that influenced the study in question.
3.2. Originality and plagiarism. Authors must ensure that they have written a completely original study, and if they have used other people’s books or statements, they must be properly cited.
3.3. Multiple publications. An author should not submit manuscripts representing the same study to more than one journal (or book). Submitting the same manuscript in more than one journal is unethical and unacceptable. The journal accepts articles originally published in languages other than English. In these cases, the authors must give the reference of the first publication and be free from the copyright of the original publisher.
3.4. Paternity of the manuscript. Only authors who have made a significant contribution to the study in question are considered to be authors. All those who contributed to the study must be present in the list of authors. If other people have been involved in some aspects of the research project, they should be mentioned in the acknowledgments. The lead author must ensure that all co-authors and only they are included in the list of authors of the manuscript, that the co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the manuscript, and that they have agreed to submission of the manuscript.
3.5. Disclosure of information and conflicts of interest. All authors must indicate, as a result of their biographical presentation, any conflicts of interest that may affect their proposed publication. Funding for research projects that made the study possible must be indicated.
3.6. Errors in publishing. If the author discovers an important error or an inaccuracy in its publication, its obligation is to quickly inform the editor and to consider, in agreement with the person in charge, the withdrawal of the article or the publication of the information about the error.

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Hadi Salehi, Somayeh Kiani, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Vocabulary Recall Improvement through Acronyms: A Case Study of Iranian Advanced EFL Learners" IJLTR 1 (2021) 3:1-14
This study aimed at investigating the effects of using acronyms on improving vocabulary recall among Iranian EFL learners. To this aim, 20 advanced EFL learners were selected and randomly assigned to two groups; namely, experimental and control. The data collection instruments were a vocabulary test consisting of some multiple-choice items and a questionnaire for exploring the participants’ perceptions of using acronyms for improving vocabulary recall. Eighty target words chosen from a textbook entitled, General English Language (2nd ed.), authored by Jafari, were also provided as the materials of the study. The vocabulary test was administered to the participants as pretest and posttest prior to and after the treatment. The findings revealed that using acronyms had a significant effect on improving vocabulary recall among the learners in the experimental group. Moreover, the participants in the experimental group had positive perceptions of the effects of using acronyms on improving vocabulary recall. The findings of this research are beneficial for those who are concerned with English learning and teaching including learners, teachers and researchers.
Key words:
Acronym, EFL Learners, Language Learning Strategy, Memory Strategy, Vocabulary Recall
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Jafari, D. (2013). General English language (2nd ed.). Payam Daneshgahi Publications.
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Nasrin Khaleghi Zavareh, National Institute of Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences/Iran " Translation of Culture-Specific Items from English into Persian: A Case Study of The Secret Garden" IJLTR 1 (2021) 3: 15-37
In this study, the main purpose was to analyze the culture-specific items in three Persian translations of an English literary work, The Secret Garden. In order to achieve this objective, Newmark’s taxonomy of culture-specific items and Vinay and Darbelnet’s model of translation were used for identifying and classifying the translation strategies of culture-specific items applied in the three Persian translations of the book. To do so, first, the CSIs were extracted from the source text. Then, the translation strategies applied in culture-specific items of the three Persian translations were detected, compared and analyzed. The obtained results showed that the ‘equivalence strategy’ was the dominant translation strategy, and ‘particularization’ and ‘adaptation’ were the least frequently-used strategies. This finding has practical implications
Key words:
Culture, Culture-specific items, Translation strategies, Vinay and Darbelnet’s model of translation
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Mahdi Rostami Ravari, Neda Fatehi Rad, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Impact of Dialogue Journal Writing on EFL Learners' Self-Regulation and Reading Comprehension Performance" IJLTR 1 (2021) 3: 39-70
: Dialogue journal writing is an activity by which language participants can make a bond of written communication with their teachers and practice various aspects of the target language. This feature can make dialogue journal writing a learner-centered instrument to improve learners' proficiency in different aspects of language. With this in mind, the present study explored the impact of dialogue journal writing on self-regulation and reading comprehension performance of EFL learners in a language institute. To this purpose, an experimental pre-test, post-test research design was used. The participants of the study were 60 pre-intermediate participants who were divided into experimental and control groups of equal size (30). At the end of the treatment, the participants took a post-test and post-questionnaire of self-regulation and the scores were recorded carefully. The results of the study indicated that the employment dialogue journal writing has a significant impact on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension skill and their self-regulation.
Key words:
Journal writing, self-regulation, reading comprehension ability, EFL learners
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Azar Bagheri Masoudzade, Islamic Azad University/Iran und Raziyeh Hashemi Lahijani, Kerman Institute of Higher Education/Iran " Communicative Language Teaching Method (CLT) and Final Examination of Iranian EFL Learners" IJLTR 1 (2021) 3: 71-90
: Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) aims at improving students’ abilities to communicate in a foreign language. This approach has been welcomed and employed by numerous EFL teachers. The current research attempted to probe the effectiveness of CLT method as a communicative approach on EFL learners’ achievements in their final examinations. It also aimed at exploring the EFL learners’ attitudes towards the use of CLT method in their language classes. A total number of 60 female students of elementary level was selected based on convenience sampling. A pre-test was administered to the participants at the beginning of the term to ensure that they had the same language background. Then, they were randomly assigned as experimental and control groups (30 students in each group). Communicative activities were employed with the experimental group while control group was exposed to traditional, non-communicative teaching method. The research lasted a term approximately six weeks. At the end of the experiment, a post-test (final exam) was assigned to both groups to determine whether CLT method had positively affected the EFL learners' achievement in final examination. In the last session, CLT questionnaire was distributed among the learners of the experimental group to explore their views (positive or negative) towards CLT method. The results showed that CLT method had a positive effect on the students' achievements in final examination. The experimental study has also illustrated the positive students’ attitude toward this communicative teaching method.
Key words:
Communicative, Language Teaching (CLT), Communicative Competence, Communicative Activities, Final Examination
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Narges Backtash, University of Tehran/Iran und Masoud Taheri, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Teaching-Learning Asymmetry: Why Don't Learners Learn What Teachers Teach" IJLTR 1 (2021) 3: 91-104
: Teachers of EFL, as well as teacher trainers, have always complained about mismatch between what they do in the language classes and the outcome of it in the real world. There has been much debate as to whether the mismatch results from learner variables, teacher inadequacies, program deficiencies, etc. The present paper reviews some existing learning perspectives and tries to come up with some hypotheses concerning the problem. One hypothesis put forward here to test in a comparative form is that the language learning environment and the strategies used by the teachers and learners do not match and therefore the efforts of both groups go down the drain. Implications of the possible confirmation of such hypothesis for language teachers are discussed and some conclusions are drawn on that basis.
Key words:
First language acquisition, second language acquisition, language testing
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Valeh Jalali, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Simplification: A Case Study of the Persian Translations of The Little Prince " IJLTR 1 (2021) 3: 105-119
: The present study explores the application of ‘simplification, as a translation universal, in three Persian translations of The Little Prince, a novel by Saint-Exupery, to find out whether there is any significant difference among them in terms of using this translation strategy. The study also aims to determine which translation is the most successful in simplifying the text in translation. The three translations examined belong to Shamloo, Qazi and Najafi, respectively. To this purpose, Kludy’s (2003) classification is used as the theoretical framework of the study. So, the data regarding simplification are extracted from the three translations on the basis of the categories of this framework. Then, the frequency of simplification strategies present in the three translations is calculated and comparisons are made.
Key words: Simplification, Simplification hypotheses, Translation universals
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pdf for download"
IJLTR 2 (2021)

Mona Lavenezhad, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Effect of Textual Integrity of Argumentative Texts on EFL Learners’ ReadingPerformance: Different Levels of Language Proficiency in Focus" IJLTR 1 (2021) 2: 1-25
The present study aimed at investigating the effect of textual integrity of argumentative texts on EFLlearners’ reading comprehension performance. It also aimed at checking the extent of such an effectamong learners with different language proficiency. To this purpose, 120 students learning English at Jihad Daneshgahi Institute in Isfahan were selected as the participants. They were selected from apool of 200 available and interested students and were divided into three groups of low proficient, intermediate and high proficient learners of equal size (40), based on their scores on an OQPT proficiency test. Then, 3 reading comprehension tests (cloze tests), with an appropriate level of text difficulty, were prepared by the researcher. In making the tests, the text in each test was either kept authentic in terms of textual integrity (i.e. text organization, cohesive devices, etc.), or manipulated to lose its textual unity and, thus, be more difficult to read and understand. The results of data analysis indicated that manipulated argumentative texts negatively affect EFL learners’ reading performanceat all levels of language proficiency. The results additionally revealed that text manipulation, i.e. textual integrity decrease, has a more significant effect on the reading performance of the intermediategroup participants. The findings of this study can have some implications for language teachers to become more alert to the effect of textual integrity of texts on reading comprehension performance of students when trying to understand argumentative texts. Furthermore, the findings might be constructive for materials developers, i.e helping them to prepare appropriate texts in terms of textualintegrity and readability, in line with the needs and levels of EFL learners.
Key words: English writing, Digital mind mapping, Mind Perception, Traditional mind mapping
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Maryam Askari, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Relationship between Two Translation Quality Assessments: Holistic Rating Vs. Waddington’s Model of Assessment" IJLTR 1 (2021) 2: 27-46
: Translation quality assessment is one of the most significant and, at the same time, problematic areas of translation. The critical importance of this issue becomes more obvious in pedagogical contexts. The present study focused on the translation quality assessment undertaken in Islamic Azad University of Bandar-Abbas which offers translation training in both B.A and M.A levels. In this study, Waddington’s model of TQA, which is accepted as an objective model, was applied to the exam papers of the students, already assessed and scored by their instructors. The results obtained from statistical analysis of the data, that is, the two sets of scores, revealed that a correlation does exist between the scores obtained through applying Waddington’s model and the scores assigned to the papers by the instructors. Based on this finding, two conclusions were drawn: 1) the assessment carried out in the above-mentioned university is objective, and 2) Waddington’s model and its criteria are not that much objective, and has some shortcomings. One of the shortcomings, according to the findings of the present study, is that ‘the unit of translation’ has not been specified in the model. Thus, the researcher proposes to consider concept’ as the ‘unit of translation’.
Key words:
Holistic method, objective translation assessment criteria, translator training, Waddington’s Model
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Rana Rahimi Larki, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Relationship between Self-regulated Learning and Self-disclosure in EFL Classes: Speaking Competence in Focus" IJLTR 1 (2021) 2: 47-67
: The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between self-regulated learning and self-disclosures in EFL speaking classes. To this end, 30 male and female Iranian EFL learners whose level of proficiency was intermediate participated in the study. Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT) was used for evaluating the participants’ general English knowledge and their self-regulations were assessed by Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI). A pre-test was administered to evaluate how much the students were good at self-disclosure. The self-regulation strategies were taught directly to the participants in 10 sessions. After completing the treatment, the post-test was conducted to assess the participants’ improvement and to understand the relationship between self-regulation and self-disclosure. To measure the relationship between self-regulation and self-disclosure, Person Correlation was run. The results of the study revealed that there was a strong positive correlation between self-regulation and self-disclosure. In another words, self-regulation learning affected participants’ self-disclosure positively. The results of the study may offer implications for English teaching in general and teaching oral skill in specific.
Key words:
Competence, Oral Proficiency, Self-Regulation, Self-Disclosure
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Zimmerman, B. J., and Kitsantas, A. (1999). Acquiring writing revision skill: Shifting from process to outcome self-regulatory goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(2), 241.
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Mahsa Soleimani und Hossein Vahid Dastjerdi, University of Isfahan/Iran " Impact of Opinion-Exchange and Information Gap Tasks on EFL Learners’ Willingness to Communicate" IJLTR 1(2021) 2: 69-87
: The present study sought to investigate the effect of two types of tasks; namely, ‘information-gap’ and ‘opinion-exchange’, on EFL learners’ Willingness to Communicate (WTC). To this end, the needed data was collected from 90 female EFL learners in Koushesh Language Institute in Isfahan, Iran, and the participants were divided into one control and two experimental groups (A and B). The latter received treatments in one of the two experimental situations and were measured for their level of L2 Willingness to Communicate (WTC). Group A received ‘information gap’ for a period of 16 sessions, and group B received ‘opinion-exchange’ tasks. The control group received no task of specific type. At the end of the treatment, the participants filled a questionnaire on their WTC. The results indicated that members of both the experimental groups outperformed those of the control group. Furthermore, it was revealed that opinion-exchange tasks had better effects on the enhancement of the participants’ WTC. The findings of this study may be very beneficial for the teachers of the English language who wish to improve their EFL learners’ speaking ability. In fact, creating environments for learners to communicate in English inside and outside the classroom through tasks would enhance learners’ willingness to communicate.
Key words:
Willingness to Communicate, information-gap task, opinion exchange task
Akbarzadeh, M., & Narafshan, M. H. (2016). A Study on the Relationship between EFL Learners’ anxiety and Willingness to Communicate in Language Classes. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 11(2), 73-85.
Breen, M. P. , Ed. (2001). Learner Contributions to Language Learning: New Directions in Research Applied Linguistics and Language Study. Routledge, England.
Ellis, R. (2009). Task-based language teaching: Sorting out the misunderstandings. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19(3), 221-246.
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Fallahi, S., Malayeri, F. A., & Bayat, A. (2015). The Effect of Information-gap vs. Opinion- gap Tasks on Iranian EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension.
Fatemipour, H., & Nourmohammadi, A. (2014). The impact of using information-gap activities on improving EFL elementary learners’ willingness to communicate. Social Research Quarterly, 6(4), 109-123.
Jahanshahi, E. (2013). The Effect of Group Work on Learners’ Willingness to Communicate in EFL (Doctoral dissertation, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University).
MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S. C., Clément, R., & Conrod, S. (2001). Willingness to communicate, social support, and language-learning orientations of immersion students. Studiesin second language acquisition, 23(03), 369-388.
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Marzban, A., & Hashemi, M. (2013). The Impact of Opinion-gap Tasks on the Speaking of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 943-948.
Montasseri, Z., & Razmjoo, S. A. (2015). The Effect of Using Competitive and Cooperative Teaching on the WTC of Iranian EFL Learners. International Journal of Language and Applied Linguistics, 1(3), 54-61.
Murad, T. M., & Smadi, O. (2009). The effect of task-based language teaching on developing speaking skills among the Palestinian secondary EFL students in Israel and their attitudestowards English. Department of Curriculum and Instruction Faculty of Education Yarmouk University.
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Mehrdad Vasheghani Farahani, Leipizig University/Germany und Nemutallah Shomoossi, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences/Iran " Letter to the Editor - Social Isolation and Disconnectedness in Translators: An Overlooked Occupational Concern" IJLTR 1 (2021) 2: 89-92
: none.
Key words:
Cacioppo, J. T., & Hawkley, L. C. (2009). Perceived social isolation and cognition. Trends in cognitive sciences, 13(10), 447–454.
Chen, Y., & Feeley, T.H. (2014). Social support, social strain, loneliness, and well-being among older adults: an analysis of the Health and Retirement Study. The Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 31(2), 141-161. doi: 10.1177/0265407513488728.
Cornwell, B., & Laumann, E. O. (2015). The health benefits of network growth: new evidence from a national survey of older adults. Social Science and Medicine (1982), 125, 94–106. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed. 2013.09.011
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Drugan, J. (2017). Ethics and social responsibility in practice: interpreters and translators engaging with and beyond the professions. The Translator, 23(2): 126-142Special issue: Translation, Ethics and Social Responsibility. Doi: 10.1080/13556509.2017.1281204
Hyland, K. (2001). Bringing in the reader: addressee features in academic writing. Written Communication, 18(4): 549-74. Doi: 10.1177/0741088301018004005
Hyland, K. (2005). Representing readers in writing: student and expert practices. Linguistics and Education, 16(4), 363-377. Doi: 10.1016/j.linged.2006.05.002
Katan, D. (2009). Occupation or profession: A survey of the translators’ world. translation and interpreting studies: The Journal of the American Translation and Interpreting Studies Association, 4, 187-209. DOI:
Ocon A. J. (2013). Caught in the thickness of brain fog: exploring the cognitive symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome. Frontiers in physiology, 4, 63. https:// /10.3389 /fphys.2013.00063.
Vasheghani Farahani, M., & Shomoossi, N. (2021). Teleworking translators during the COVID-19 pandemic: Social and personal experiences from Iran. New Voices in Translation Studies, 24, 117-126.

pdf for download"
IJLTR 1 (2021) 1

Shima Ghobadi, Nastaran Zahedian, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Advertisement Slogans in English-Persian Translations: In Search of Appropriate Persuasive Features" IJLTR 1 (2021) 1:1-16
English advertisement slogans are rarely translated into Persian though they are almost everywhere around us. In the present study, due to the importance of the persuasive language and the rhetorical figures in advertisement slogans, couples of English-Persian advertisement slogans were analyzed to illustrate the persuasive characteristics used in them. The findings revealed that to sell the foreign products well in Iran’s markets, translators of related slogans should be aware of the persuasive language of advertisements and find the most appropriate translation strategy through analyzing them. It was also revealed in the analysis of the selected slogans and comparison of their translated versions that the Persian style of advertisements is in some ways different from their counterparts in English, yet they do share a number of features. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the translation of advertisement slogans should be regarded as a form of featured translation demanding translators’ sensitivity.
Key words:
Advertisement slogans, persuasion, cultural features, advertising slogans
Abbas Al Agha, B. (2006). Translation of fast-food advertising texts from English to Arabic, Unpublished master’s thesis, University of South Africa, South Africa, Pretoria.
Adab, B., & Valdés, C. (Editors). (2004). Key debates in the translation of advertising material. The Translator, 10(2), 58-62.
Agha Golzadeh, F., Asadi, A., BagheriHariry, M. (2012). The Contrastive Analysis of Gender Factor Manifestation in the language of Advertisement in Iran in 1980’s and 2000’s. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2 (2),151-153
Aminpour, S., & Vahid Dastjerdi, H. (2014). An Investigation of Virtual and Hardcopy Persian Rendering of English Novels: A Cultural Approach. International Review of Social Sciences, 2 (3), 81-89.
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Christelle, K. (2012). The translation of advertisements: issues of semiotics, symbolism and persuasion. Johannesburg: University of Witwatersrand.
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Jalilifar, A. (2010). The rhetoric of Persian and English advertisements. The International Journal of Language Society and Culture, 30, 25-39.
Khodabandeh, F. (2007). A Contrastive Analysis of Rhetorical Figures in English and Persian Advertisements. The Asian ESP Journal, 3(2), 41-64.
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Hossein Heidari Tabrizi, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Pedagogical Quality of English Achievement Tests: An Untold Story of Iranian High School Students’ Oral Scores" IJLTR 1 (2021) 1: 17-29
: The test scores on students’ report cards is the only benchmark against which their English achievement are assessed for evaluative purposes in Iranian high schools. According to the rules and regulations, the average score of a student is required to be reported by English teachers, based on her/his performance on both oral and written tests. The present study aimed to discover if Iranian high school female students’ English scores on their report cards represent the real sum of their oral and written test scores. To do so, the average scores of 30 female students in Grade 11 at two Iranian girls’ senior high schools in Isfahan were compared with those of a researcher-made validated oral and written test. The results showed that the scores of the students on the newly-developed test were higher than those recorded on their report cards. The results of a paired t test revealed a statistically significant difference between the means of these two sets of scores, rejecting the common false presupposition about students’ low performance in oral skills. Teachers typically skipped the oral test and rated their students’ oral ability, just on the basis of their own intuition or students’ performance on the written test. It seems that the exclusion of the oral test leads to this difference in the scores. Thus, Iranian high school students’ English scores appearing on their report card are not a sound reflection of their performance on the oral and written tests.
Key words:
English Achievement Tests, Iranian High Language Assessing Quality, Students’ Oral Scores
Abbasi, S., Chalak, A., & Heidari Tabrizi, H. (2021). Impact of online strategies-based instruction on Iranian advanced EFL learners’ speaking scores. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, 9(36), 21-37.
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Abedini, F. & Chalak, A. (2017). Investigating the inhibitive factors in the speaking of Iranian EFL learners. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 4(6), 82-97.
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Aslani, S. M., & Heidari Tabrizi, H. (2015). Teaching Grammar to Iranian EFL Learners through Blended Learning Using Multimedia Softwares. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 2(8), 76-87.
Bachman, L. (1990). Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Elaheh Mashhadi, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Naturalness in Translation: A Case Study of the Figurative Elements in the Persian Rendering of To Kill a Mockingbird" IJLTR 1 (2021) 1: 48-49
: The present research examines different translation strategies employed to render into Persian idioms and metaphors in the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird. Actually, the aim of the research is to scrutinize the choices made by the translator when dealing with such elements, through comparing the source and target tropes in search of the most frequently-used strategies. To investigate possible strategies used to render idioms, Baker’s four-stage model was used, while for metaphors, the model proposed by Morneau was applied. As for estimating the naturalness of the translation, Venuti's concepts of domestication and foreignization were utilized. The collected data comprised 209 idioms and 39 metaphors. Analysis of the data revealed that the most frequently-used strategies for rendering idioms and metaphors were paraphrase and word-for-word translation, respectively. Furthermore, it was found that domestication was more dominant than foreignization in the Persian translation. The findings of the present study can be helpful for all those involved in the practice of translating literary works as well as novice translators, translation teachers and translation students.
Key words:
Translation strategies,Domestication, Foreignization,Naturalness, Paraphrase
Alhasnawi, A. (2007). A cognitive approach to translating metaphors. Translation Journal, 11(3).
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Zahra Haghshenas, University of Isfahan/Iran " A Cross-cultural Study of Animal Symbolism in the Persian Renderings of Children's Literatur" IJLTR 1 (2021) 1: 57-79
: Animals are among culture-bound items which make the translation practice a difficult task for translators and need specific considerations on the part of the translators. In fact, animals in each culture carry some symbolic meanings with themselves which are specific to that culture and are different from those carried in other cultures. Accordingly, the present study aimed at investigating the Literature. It also sought to find the effectiveness of using such strategies regarding the target audiences.To achieve these goals, eleven animal terms, with different symbolic meanings in western and Persian culture, were investigated in twelve western children’s books and their Persian translations. Then, based on Venuti's (1995) categorization of translation strategies, they were categorized into two main domestication and foreignization translation groups to see which group keeps more preferred strategy among Persian translators of children's literature. The effectiveness of using such strategies was measured by interviewing thirty Persian first grade students to elicit their strategies adopted by Persian translators to render the symbolic meaning of animals in children's knowledge about the symbol of animals and comparing them with the used strategies. The results showed that most of the Persian translators tend to foreignize these cultural terms. However, the results of the interview revealed that children recognize the native symbolic meanings of animals more than their foreign ones. It was concluded that the strategies used by Persian translators is not an appropriate one for translating cultural symbolic terms for Persian children.
Key words:
symbol, children's literature, translation strategy, foreignization, domestication
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Farzan Hasani, Islamic Azad University/Iran und Mohamma Reza Talebinejad, University of Isfahan/Iran " Ideology and Audience in the Translation of 'Geneca Joint Plan of Action': Focus on BBC, VOA, and Press TV" IJLTR 1 (2021) 1: 81-96
: This study aimed to investigate how and to what extent news agencies namely BBC, VOA and Press TV may manipulate a political or any given source text ideologically, as to suit their affiliations, how they present the news items and how that affects the audience. To this end, the researcher selected news items mainly in the form of audiovisual material broadcast by the mentioned news agencies regarding the interim agreement of Geneva. Drawing mainly on Van Dijk’s (2004) CDA Socio-Cognitive Framework, the news items which were mostly in form of audio-visual material were transcribed and then analyzed to find out what proportions of the information extracted from these news items were ideologically manipulated compared to the source text and in what order. It was revealed that Lexicalization, Evidentiality and Implication were the most prominent strategies used in BBC, Lexicalization, Number Game and Authority were the most used strategies in VOA and Lexicalization, Categorization and Negative Other-Presentation were the strategies mostly used in Press TV.
Key words:
Geneva Joint Plan of Action, BBC, VOA, Press TV, Lexicalization, Evidentiality and Implication
Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and Power, London: Longman.
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Azizeh Chalak, Vahideh Rastgoo, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Perceptions of Language Learners towards the Use of Traditional vs. Digital Mind-Mapping Techniques in English Writing Class" IJLTR 1 (2021) 1: 97-115
: The application of various creative teaching methods including mind-mapping has attracted English teachers. Instructors have always shown interest in establishing contexts that motivate and encourage learners to be more enthusiastic in their learning process. Mind-mapping is among the teaching and learning techniques evolved in this regard. The study aimed at comparing the perceptions of language learners toward the use of traditional and digital mind-mapping techniques in English writing classes. This descriptive study was conducted on 30 language learners of Shokouh Institute, Tabas, Iran. They were 14-17 years old with an intermediate level of English proficiency. The participants had already received both traditional and digital trainings and mastered the two techniques. The data on the participants’ perceptions were collected using questionnaires and interviews. The data analysis showed that the participants had positive perceptions toward mind-mapping, particularly digital technique. Based on the findings of the research, mind-mapping technique has helped the students organize their texts. Mind-mapping could also help English students to develop their writing skills in terms of organizing ideas. Consequently, mind-mapping would especially be suitable to assist students plan their English writing, since the technique stimulates them to obtain and establish a deeper understanding of the writing topics.
Key words
English writing, Digital Mind-mapping, Mind-mapping, Perception, Traditional Mind-mapping
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